NIH Expedited Reporting • Requirements for reporting vary by institute Institute NCCAM: NCI: NEI: NHLBI: NIA: NIAID: NIAMS: NICHD: NIDA: NIDCR: NIDDK: NIMH: NINDS: Data and Safety Monitoring Policies http://nccam.nih.gov/research/policies/datasafety/ http://deainfo.nci.nih.gov/grantspolicies/datasafety.htm http://www.nci.nih.gov/clinical_trials/conducting/ http://www.nei.nih.gov/funding/policy/policy6.htm http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/funding/policies/dsmb_est.htm http://rover2.nhlbi.nih.gov/funding/policies/dsm-12.htm http://rover2.nhlbi.nih.gov/funding/policies/dataqual.htm http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/funding/policies/dsmb_othr.htm http://www.nia.nih.gov/funding/policy/humint.htm http://www.niaid.nih.gov/ncn/pdf/clinterm.pdf http://www.niams.nih.gov/rtac/clinical/dsmb3.html http://www.niams.nih.gov/rtac/funding/grants/datasafe.htm http://www.nichd.nih.gov/funding/datasafety.htm http://www.nida.nih.gov/Funding/DSMBSOP.html http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/research/ctp/data_safety_monitoring_boards.pdf http://www.niddk.nih.gov/patient/patient.htm#policy http://www.nimh.nih.gov/research/safetymonitoring.cfm http://www.ninds.nih.gov/funding/ninds_patient_safety_guidelines.htm
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Estimation Problems Scenario I: Toss one of the coins four times. Observing HHTH Question: Which coin is more likely to produce this sequence ? Scenario II: Toss coin 0. If Head – toss coin 1; o/w – toss coin 2 Observing the sequence HHHHT, THTHT, HHHHT, HHTTH produced by Coin 0 , Coin1 and Coin2 Question: Estimate most likely values for p, q (the probability of H in each coin) and the probability to use each of the coins (a) Scenario III: Toss coin 0. If Head – toss coin 1; o/w – toss coin 2 Observing the sequence HHHT, HTHT, HHHT, HTTH produced by Coin 1 and/or Coin 2 Coin Question: Estimate most likely values for p, q and a 0 There is no known analytical solution to this problem (general setting). That is, it is not known how to compute the values of the parameters so as to maximize the likelihood of the data. 1st Bayesian Learning CS446 -FALL ‘16 toss 2nd toss nth toss 142
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Works Cited Chen, Viola, Eric Oermann, Saloomeh Vahdat, Jennifer Riben, Simeng Suy, Xia Yu, Sean Collins, and Brian Collins. "CyberKnife with Tumor Tracking: An Effective Treatment for High-Risk Surgical Patients with Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer." Frontiers in Oncology 2.9 (2012): n. pag. PubMed. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. . Frighetto, Leonardo, Jorge Bizzi, Rafael Annes, Rodrigo Dos Santos Silva, and Paulo Oppitz. "Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Movement Disorders." Surgical Neurology International 3.1 (2012): n. pag. PubMed. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. . "Stereotactic Radiosurgery." MedlinePlus. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. . "Stereotactic Radiosurgery Overview." IRSA. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. . "Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)." Radiology Info. Radiological Society of North America, n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. . "Stereotactic Surgery." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. . Vesper, J., E. Bolke, C. Wille, P. A. Gerber, C. Matuschek, and M. Peiper. "Current Concepts in Stereotactic Radiosurgery - a Neurosurgical and Radiooncological Point of View." European Journal of Medical Research 14.3 (2009): n. pag. PubMed. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. .
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Bibliography  Lifshutz, Jason I., and Walter D. Johnson. "History of Hydrocephalus and Its Treatments." Neurosurgical FOCUS 11.2 (2001): 1-5. Web. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/405733  "Hydrocephalus." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrocephalus  Interactive, Rails. "Disorders Brain Treatment of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus." Auburn Spine and Neurosurgery Center. Auburn Spine and Neurology Center, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2016. http://auburnspine.com/disorder/brain_nph_treatment.html  Lee, Won-Chul, Dae-Hee Seo, Il-Seung Choe, Sung-Choon Park, Young-Soo Ha, and Kyu Chang Lee. "A Comparative Result of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt, Focusing Mainly on Gravity-Assisted Valve and Programmable Valve." J Korean Neurosurg Soc Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 48.3 (2010): 251. Web. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2966728/  Browd, Samuelr, Barryr Lutz, and Pranav Venkataraman. "New and Improved Ways to Treat Hydrocephalus: Pursuit of a Smart Shunt." Surgical Neurology International Surg Neurol Int 4.2 (2013): 38. Web. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3642745/  Pople, I. "HYDROCEPHALUS AND SHUNTS: WHAT THE NEUROLOGIST SHOULD KNOW." Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. BMJ Group, Sept. 2002. Web. 27 Sept. 2016. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1765598/pdf/v073p00i17.pdf  "Shunt Systems." Hydrocephalus Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2016. http://www.hydroassoc.org/shunt-systems/  Allanach, Simon. "What Is Hydrocephalus?" What Is Hydrocephalus? N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2016. http://hydrocephalus.allanach.dk/hydrocephalus  "Medscape Log In." Medscape Log In. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.  By Understanding Possible Shunt Complications, You Can Direct Your Care to Assess the Specific Problem, Whether It Be Initiating Treatment for an Infection or Recognizing the Need for Transport for a Possible Break in the Shunt Due to Rough Physical Activity or Trauma. As EMS Providers, We Encounter a Variety of Special Populations. Having a Little Insight into Them Will Allay Some of Our Anxiety That Comes from the Unknown. Next Time You Encounter a Situation in Which Our EMS Crew Did, Step Back, Take a Breath and Do What You Do Best-care for Those in Their Time of Need. "Can Hydrocephalus Cause a Seizure? | EMSWorld.com." EMSWorld.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2016. http://www.emsworld.com/article/11102879/can-hydrocephalus-cause-a-seizure
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Exercise Similar to Sertraline in effect http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/09/19/us-exercise-depression-idUSCOL96941220070919 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3671874/pdf/nihms470384.pdf High energy expenditure is best, but any exercise is better than no exercise http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3674785/pdf/nihms-386053.pdf http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2014/03/for-depression-prescribing-exercise-before-medication/284587/ Often benefits other comorbid conditions At the least, add it to other treatments http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3998225/pdf/1471-244X-14-107.pdf Exercise protects against depression http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/10/01/how-exercise-may-protect-against-depression/
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Works Cited Chen, Viola, Eric Oermann, Saloomeh Vahdat, Jennifer Riben, Simeng Suy, Xia Yu, Sean Collins, and Brian Collins. "CyberKnife with Tumor Tracking: An Effective Treatment for HighRisk Surgical Patients with Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer." Frontiers in Oncology 2.9 (2012): n. pag. PubMed. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. . CyberKnife. Accuray, n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. . CyberKnife® at Pennsylvania Hospital." Penn Medicine. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. . "Cyberknife.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Dec. 2012. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. . Vesper, J., E Bolke, C. Wille, P. A. Gerber, C. Matuschek, and M. Peiper. "Current Concepts in Stereotactic Radiosurgery - a Neurosurgical and Radiooncological Point of View." European Journal of Medical Research 14.3 (2009): n. pag. PubMed. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. . Wang, Yi-Shan, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Peng Jiang, Jian-Jun Ma, Zhen Qu, Xi-Lin Wang, Jun-Ti Li, and XiFeng Jia. "Short-term Outcomes of CyberKnife Therapy for Advanced High-risk Tumors: A Report of 160 Cases." PubMed Central. NCBI, 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. .
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PubMed Central Submission Methods A B Journal1 deposits the published version of all NIH-funded articles in PMC. Author arranges with Publisher2 to deposit published version of specific NIH-funded article in PMC. Final published article in PMC Author confirms the article is deposited in PMC.  Method A – Journals (> 800) submit NIH-funded articles to PMC without author involvement.  Method B – Publishers deposit an individual article in PMC upon author request, generally for a fee.  Final published article submitted to PMC at time of publication, assigned a PMCID  Text available in PMC generally12 months after the date of publication 1. Journal list at http://publicaccess.nih.gov/submit_process_journals.htm#journals 2. List of Publishers at http://publicaccess.nih.gov/select_deposit_publishers.htm 13
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Resources • About the Public Access Policy: – http://publicaccess.nih.gov/ – NIH Guide Notice for Public Access (January 2008): http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-08-033.html – New Guide Notice for Grantee Compliance (September 2008): http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-08-119.html – Email Questions: [email protected] • The NIH Manuscript Submission System: – http://www.nihms.nih.gov/ – Tutorials: http://www.nihms.nih.gov/web-help/ • PubMed Central: – http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/ – Educational Video: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Education/pmc/ – Information for Publishers: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/about/pubinfo.html 18
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References [1] - Stoilos,Simou,Stamou,Kollias,“Uncertainty and the Semantic Web”, http://www.image.ece.ntua.gr/php/savepaper.php?id=445, http://www.image.ece.ntua.gr/php/savepaper.php?id=445, 2006, IEEE [2] – 2008 Conference, “Uncertainty Reasoning for the Semantic Web”, http://c4i.gmu.edu/ursw/2008/index.html [3] - 2007 Conference, “Uncertainty Reasoning for the Semantic Web”, http://c4i.gmu.edu/ursw/2007/index.html [4] - Stoilos,Stamou,Tzouvaras,Pan,Horrocks, “Fuzzy OWL: Uncertainty and the Semantic Web”, http://www.image.ntua.gr/papers/398.pdf [5] - Lassila, “Some Personal Thoughts on Semantic Web and “Non-symbolic” AI”, http://c4i.gmu.edu/ursw/2008/talks/URSW2008_Keynote_Lassila.pdf, http://c4i.gmu.edu/ursw/2008/talks/URSW2008_Keynote_Lassila.pdf, 2008, ISWC [6] – Williams,Bastin,Cornford,Ingram, “Describing and Communicating Uncertainty within the Semantic Web”, http://c4i.gmu.edu/ursw/2008/papers/URSW2008_F3_WilliamsEtAl.pdf [7] – Sanchez, “Fuzzy logic and semantic web”, http://books.google.com/books? id=Cidej8b4ESIC&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=monotonic+bivalent+language&source=bl&ots=mtbZcZfaO7&sig=VtGqKXurrzl5HOw36UBTeTpdoE&hl=en&ei=sBIASpuJFonItgeKnpyTBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#PPP1,M1 [8] – Klinov, Parsia, “Demonstrating Pronto: a Non-monotonic Probabilistic OWL Reasoner”, http://www.webont.org/owled/2008dc/papers/owled2008dc_paper_2.pdf [9] – Klinov, “Introducing Pronto: Probabilistic DL Reasoning in Pellet“, http://clarkparsia.com/weblog/2007/09/27/introducing-pronto/ [10] – Wikipedia Fuzzy Set theory, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuzzy_set [11] – Wikipedia Probability Theory, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probability_theory [12] – Straccia, “A Fuzzy Description Logic for the Semantic Web”, http://www.win.tue.nl/~aserebre/ks/Lit/Straccia2006.pdf [13] – Mazzieri, Dragoni, “A Fuzzy Semantics for Semantic Web Languages”, http://ftp.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/Publications/CEUR-WS/Vol-173/paper2.pdf [14] – Wikipedia Description Logic, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Description_logic [15] – Ding, Peng, Pan, “BayesOWL: Uncertainty Modeling in Semantic Web Ontologies”, http://ebiquity.umbc.edu/_file_directory_/papers/217.pdf [16] – Martin-recurerda1, Robertson2, “Discovery and Uncertainty in Semantic Web Services”, http://ftp.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/Publications/CEUR-WS/Vol173/paper4.pdf [17] – “Semantic Web Services Framework (SWSF) Overview”, http://www.w3.org/Submission/SWSF/ [18] – Nagy,Vargas-Vera,Motta, “Uncertain Reasoning for Creating Ontology Mapping on the Semantic Web”, http://c4i.gmu.edu/ursw/2007/files/papers/URSW2007_P2_NagyVeraMotta.pdf [19] – Ceravolo, Damiani,Leida, “Which Role for an Ontology of Uncertainty?”, http://c4i.gmu.edu/ursw/2008/papers/URSW2008_P6_CeravoloEtAl.pdf [20] – Laskey, Laskey, “Uncertainty Reasoning for the World Wide Web: Report on the URW3-XG Incubator Group”, http://c4i.gmu.edu/ursw/2008/papers/URSW2008_FX_LaskeyLaskey.pdf [21] – Costa, Laskey, “PR-OWL: A Framework for Probabilistic Ontologies”, http://volgenau.gmu.edu/~klaskey/papers/FOIS2006_CostaLaskey.pdf [22] – Wang, “Integrating Uncertainty Into Ontology Mapping”, http://iswc2007.semanticweb.org/papers/955.pdf
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Resources • • • • • • NIH Public Access Page on ORD Websitehttp://www.ord.umaryland.edu/ord_research/PubAccess.html Upcoming Changes to Public Access Policy Reporting Requirements and Related NIH Efforts to Enhance Compliancehttp://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-12160.html Changes to Public Access Policy Compliance Efforts Apply to All Awards with Anticipated Start Dates on or after July 1, 2013http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-13-042.html NIH Requires Use of RPPR for All SNAP and Fellowship Progress Reports, and Expands RPPR Functionalityhttp://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/noticefiles/NOT-OD-13-035.html NLM Website - My Bibliography: Award Compliance Reports in PDF for eRA Commons Users http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/techbull/nd12/nd12_myncbi_pdf.html NCBI Bookshelf – My Bibliography http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK53595/
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Sources • • • • • • • • • • Biography of Frida Kahlo. Internet Accessed on January 29, 2006. . “Emiliano Zapata.” Wikipedia.org. 6 Feb. 2006. wikipedia.org. 2 Feb 2006. http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/emiliano_zapata. “Francisco Madero.” Wikipedia.org. 5 Feb. 2006. wikipedia.org. 2 Feb 2006. http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/francisco_i._madero. Franco, Jean: An Introduction to Spanish-American Literature (3rd edition, 1994) 196197. “Pancho Villa.” Wikipedia.org. 6 Feb. 2006. wikipedia.org. 2 Feb 2006. http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/pancho_villa. “Porfirio Diaz.” Wikipedia.org. 22 Jan. 2006. wikipedia.org. 2 Feb 2006. http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/porfirio_d%c3adaz. “Mexican Revolution of 1910, The.” MEXonline.com. 6 Sept. 2005. mexonline.com. 2 Feb. 2006. http://www.mexonline.com/revolution.htm. The Archive Patron. Jose Guadalupe Posada. Internet Accessed on January 29, 2006. . Wickman-Crowley, Timothy. “Toward a Comparative Sociology of Latin American Guerrilla Movements.” Revolutions. Ed. Jack Goldstone. New York: Thomas and Wadsworth, 2003. 285-294 Wikipedia. Diego Rivera. Internet Accessed on January 29, 2006. .
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Citations http:// www.ahaf.org/alzheimers/about/understanding/ history.html http://www.ahaf.org/alzheimers/treatment/co mmon / http:// www.mayoclinic.com/health/alzheimers-dise ase/DS00161/DSECTION=causes Pubmed health:     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001006/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001066/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0000190/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0000250/
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Federal Regulation Agencies Consumer ConsumerProduct Product Safety Commission Safety Commission http://www.cpsc.gov http://www.cpsc.gov Department Departmentof ofLabor Labor http://www.dol.gov http://www.dol.gov Environmental EnvironmentalProtection ProtectionAgency Agency http://www.epa.gov http://www.epa.gov Equal EqualEmployment Employment Opportunity OpportunityCommission Commission Federal FederalCommunications Communications Commission Commission 3.4 http://www.eeoc.gov http://www.eeoc.gov http://www.fcc.gov http://www.fcc.gov Federal FederalReserve ReserveSystem System http://www.federalreserve.gov http://www.federalreserve.gov Federal FederalTrade TradeCommission Commission http://www.ftc.gov http://www.ftc.gov Food Foodand andDrug DrugAdministration Administration http://www.fda.gov http://www.fda.gov National NationalLabor LaborRelations RelationsBoard Board http://www. http://www.nlrb.gov nlrb.gov Occupational OccupationalSafety Safetyand and Health Administration Health Administration Securities Securitiesand andExchange Exchange Commission Commission http://www.osha.gov http://www.osha.gov http://www.sec.gov http://www.sec.gov 22
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Sources • • • • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Father_of_surgery • http://medrobotics.com/wpcontent/uploads/2015/04/Medrobotics_Businessweek_FlexRoboticSystem_082916.pdf • • • http://medrobotics.com/surgicalvideos/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3232561/ http://www.intuitivesurgical.com http://medrobotics.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/PRESS-RELEASE-MDEA-Award-June-2016-06-20-16.pd f http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2772168/ http://spectrum.ieee.org/the-human-os/biomedical/devices/snake-like-robots-that-glide-into-orifices
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Sources General Information http://www.medel.com/us/ https://wiki.engr.illinois.edu/download/attachments/48137228/ECE+415+Cochlear+Implant+Final.pdf http://www.asu.edu/clas/shs/cilab/documents/publications/2004dormanwilson.pdf http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007203.htm https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/pages/coch.aspx http://www.asha.org/public/hearing/Cochlear-Implant-Frequently-Asked-Questions/ http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hearingloss/types.html http://teamhearing.org/blogs/?tag=cochlear-implants Laser based implant http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2012-04/how-it-works-artificial-hearing-device-made-lasers Biomaterials http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3199815/
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Works Cited  http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=cd651af3-cc34-47c2-9663-786b25eaf05c%40sessionmgr 110&vid=2&hid= 113  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B82YB-4PYYPNK7&_user=686190&_coverDate=11%2F30%2F2007&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=gateway&_origin=gateway&_sort=d& _docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000038118&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=686190&md5=077328988bc26558f 6074308beb0c347&searchtype=a  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T1J-41KNXTH15&_user=686190&_coverDate=09%2F29%2F2000&_alid=1712912401&_rdoc=5&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin =search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_cdi=4892&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=87210&_acct=C000038118& _version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=686190&md5=6056b342e5459f3edc6feb83c751d180&searchtype=a  http://www.biopsychiatry.com/antidepressants.pdf  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T8T-4MCWDB73&_user=686190&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F2007&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=gateway&_origin=gateway&_sort=d& _docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1713010082&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000038118&_version=1&_urlVersio n=0&_userid=686190&md5=92911f118ffb8f53b9a59b6d4150bb8c&searchtype=a  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T26-3WWTYVF2&_user=686190&_coverDate=07%2F31%2F1999&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=gateway&_origin=gateway&_sort=d& _docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1714696245&_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&_acct=C000038118&_version=1&_u rlVersion=0&_userid=686190&md5=dbb1fb118e4fd276684d470dfe298568&searchtype=a  http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/815695-overview#a0104  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2665081/  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC181155/  http://www.psychiatrist.com/pcc/pccpdf/v05s07/v05s0704.pdf  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TF9-4F0117J1&_user=686190&_coverDate=02%2F01%2F2005&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=gateway&_origin=gateway&_sort=d& _docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1714921037&_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&_acct=C000038118&_version=1&_u rlVersion=0&_userid=686190&md5=11ba11ea3a35d4dd306537a24b2bec9d&searchtype=a
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What is the maximum weight limit? • American Chiropractic Association recommends no more than 10% of a child’s body weight. • The following studies also support no more than 10%: - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20023607 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26413545 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911845 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24619606
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Entrepreneurship: is it good enough to be social? John F. McVea and Michael J. Naughton Introduction • The term Social Entrepreneurship has experienced a huge growth in influence over that last decade. The literature proposes a number of advantages to social entrepreneurship as a frame of reference: • Promoting innovation within non-profits • Leveraging and focusing scarce philanthropic resources • Faster response to strategic challenges • Infusion of business skills to non-business world • Involvement of non government assets in social problems • Creation of hybrid (blurred) organizations between for profit and non profit worlds. It is widely observed that practice has outpaced theoretical development leading to little agreement on definitions or frameworks for social entrepreneurship. We believe that widespread and unchallenged acceptance of the term Social Entrepreneurship masks some dangers and has contributed to confusion in the field. We believe that if we apply some insights from Catholic Social Teaching to the issue of social entrepreneurship we can move beyond the false dichotomy of Entrepreneurship/ Social Entrepreneurship and identify three specific entrepreneurial strategies which support a more robust discussion of the nature of the work that is entrepreneurship. We believe that the field would benefit from spending less time discussing social entrepreneurship and more time discussion the nature of the good entrepreneur. • • • • • The dangers of naïve acceptance of Social Entrepreneurship • • • The rhetorical risk: • Narrow definition: if S.E. is simply used to rebrand non-profits then much of the value of the new activities, hybrid design, stimulation of new resources and innovation is lost. • Implied dichotomy: if “good” ventures are termed “social” it can imply that other forms of entrepreneurship are “asocial” or “anti social” • Boundarylessness: In contrast, if all business activities are deemed “social”, to some degree or other, then the term loses all meaning focus on the distinctive phenomenon that is S.E. Despite these risks we are more concerned with a risk beyond rhetoric; the risk of undermining the meaning of work, particularly from the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching. While this perspective is drawn from the Catholic tradition, accepting the content of CST does not require acceptance of Catholic faith (Guitan, 2009). The three goods of social entrepreneurship • We are concerned by the side-effects of a concentration thesis that suggests that the moral responsibilities of entrepreneurship can be concentrated in a subset of businesses called social enterprises, presumably leaving other enterprise to simply concentrate on serving themselves. • We are concerned by the impact such a concentration thesis could have on the conception of the meaning of work beyond the world of social enterprise. • We are concerned with how such an approach can focus attention solely on the altruistic contributions of entrepreneurial ventures as the sole measure of their contribution to the Common Good • Instead we propose that, rather than trying to determine the difference between entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship, it would be more productive to focus on the questions “What is Good Entrepreneurship? What action and activities define that goodness?” • We further propose that, by apply the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching, we can identify three specific strategies through which entrepreneurial ventures may contribute to the Common Good thus suggesting that good entrepreneurship requires a focus on: 1. Good Goods. The primary way an entrepreneurial venture can contribute to the Common Good is by bringing into existence new products and services which are inherently good and which enrich lives and minimize any unintended harms. This can include what we call the “entrepreneurship of the mundane”, that is, the manufacture of the nuts and bolts and basic necessities of life as well as the creation of life saving treatments. However, inclusion of good goods as a primary moral contribution of entrepreneurship must also require of the entrepreneur analysis of what goods are not good, and what aspects of even good goods should be redesigned or rethought in order to minimize unintended consequences. We find, in our discussions, that this is a much under appreciated dimension of the good of entrepreneurship. 2. Good Work. The second way an entrepreneurial venture can contribute to the Common Good is through the nature of the work that is carried out by the venture. This dimension has several aspects both internal and external to the entrepreneur: • The development of good character in the entrepreneur. This aspect of the good is derived from the subjective dimension of work, that is, just as how-we-work ends up changing the world, so working-on-the-world changes us. Most professionals spend the majority of their waking hours at work. As habits, character and wisdom are developed through experience and activity, for the entrepreneur, doing good work is an important opportunity to develop character. Society as a whole is better off for having good, successful entrepreneurial leaders who, through that calling, can become leaders of character. This dimension of the entrepreneurial good is widely unappreciated even by entrepreneurs themselves • Good relations with employees, customers and other stakeholders. Value creation and trade creates opportunities for the building of social relationships. The central question is “Are you in good relation with those with whom you create value?’ Do your employees have opportunity to develop as people? 3. Good Wealth. The third way the good entrepreneur can contribute to the Common Good is through the creation of good wealth. Good wealth requires a balance of reward for labor/ creativity with the provision of a living wage to all. Good wealth is often captured by individual action but has social strings attached. From the CST perspective the creation of good wealth implies a particular solidarity with the poor. One way to contribute to the common good is to donate altruistically to those in need. But even here, altruism is only one of a number of possible strategies. Good entrepreneurs may also contribute by donating their time or their particular skills. Indeed, since the donation of time and work often requires physical interaction with those in need, it often generates a solidarity of far greater integrity. Finally, it must be emphasized that altruism, for the entrepreneur, is always dependent, indeed subsequent to the creation of good wealth in the first place. Literature cited Alvord, Sarah, David L. Brown, and Christine W. Letts, 2004. “Social Entrepreneurship and Societal Transformation: An Exploratory Study,” The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 40:260. Benedict XVI, Caritas et veritate,   Boschee, Jerr. 1998 “What does it take to be a social entrepreneur?” National Centre for Social Entrepreneurs (www.socialentrepreneurs.org/whatdoes/html), 5pp.   Cannon, Carl. 2000. “Charity for profit: how the new social entrepreneurs are creating good by sharing wealth” National Journal, June 16: 1898-1904.   Christie, Michael and Benson Honig. 2006. “Social entrepreneurship: New research findings.” Journal of World Business. 41: 1-5.   Dees, Gregory, J., 1998. “The Meaning of ‘Social Entrepreneurship,’” Original Draft: 10/3.   Drucker, P.F. 1985. Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New York: Harper & Row.   Fowler, Alan. “NGDOs as a moment in history: beyond aid to social entrepreneurship or civic innovation?” Third World Quarterly, 21(4): 637-654.   Gregg, S. and G. Preece: 1999, Christianity and Entrepreneurship (The Centre for Independent Studies Limited, St. Leonards, NSW, Australia).   Hibbert, Sally A., Gillian Hogg and Theresa Quinn. “Consumer response to social entrepreneurship: The case of the Big Issue in Scotland.” International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. 7(3): 288-301.   Johnson, Sherrill, 2000. “Literature Review on Social Entrepreneurship,” Canadian Center for social Entrepreneurship. (http://www.bus.ualberta.ca/ccse/Publications/).   John Paul II, Pope.: 1992 Laborem Exercens (On Human Work): 1981, in D. J. O’Brien and T. A. Shannon, (eds.), Catholic Social Thought (Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY).   John Paul II, Pope.: 1992 Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (On Social Concern): 1987 in D. J. O’Brien and T. A. Shannon, (eds.), Catholic Social Thought (Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY).   Kennedy, R., G, Atkinson, and M. Naughton, (eds.): 1994, Dignity of Work: John Paul II Speaks To Managers and Workers (University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland).   Mair, Johanna and Ernesto Noboa, 2003. “Social Entrepreneurship: How Intentions to Create a Social Enterprise get Formed,” IESE Business School.   Mair, Johanna and Ignasi Marti, 2006. “Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight,” Journal of World Business. 41: 36-44.   Melé, D.:2001, ‘A Challenge for Business Enterprises: Introducing the Primacy of the Subjective Meaning of Work in Work Organization’, (http://www.stthomas.edu/cathstudies/cst/mgmt/le/papers/mele.htm) Conclusions We have argued that, while there is great promise in the contemporary social entrepreneurship movement, there are also a number of important dangers. We propose that, if we confront rather than acquiesce to these dangers, we can use the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching to broaden the scope of entrepreneurial ventures that we study, to enrich the moral dimension of entrepreneurial strategy and to deepen the teaching of entrepreneurship as a whole. We recommend the following to move toward these contributions: • Incorporate social entrepreneurship into entrepreneurship in a way that enhances the three goods of entrepreneurship. Specifically we propose replacing the questions “What is social entrepreneurship?” with the questions “What does it mean to be a Good entrepreneur?” From this perspective we can then apply what we have called the three goods of entrepreneurship as a means of supplying critical challenge and inspiration to all forms of entrepreneurship such that the true moral dimension of this critical force in our lives comes into fruition. • Encourage research within the entrepreneurship discipline that addresses traditional social entrepreneurial issues such as micro lending, fair trade products, etc. • Develop bridge courses such as Theo/Cath 306 which help students understand and experience the meaning of the good entrepreneur as well as connect students to the spiritual and moral principles of a good entrepreneur. • Expose entrepreneurship students to so-called social entrepreneurs as well so-called conventional good entrepreneurs so they can see the spectrum of entrepreneurial activities. © File copyright Colin Purrington. You may use for making your poster, of course, but please do not plagiarize, adapt, or put on your own site. Also, do not upload this file, even if modified, to third-party file-sharing sites such as doctoc.com. If you have insatiable need to post a template onto your own site, search the internet for a different template to steal. File downloaded from http://colinpurrington.com/tips/ academic/posterdesign. Acknowledgments I am indebted to Michael Naughton and Laura Dunham for their reflections and thoughts on this paper.
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Works Cited • "Cerebral Cortex." Deep Brain Stimulation. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2012. • • • • • • • . "Deep Brain Stimulation." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 19 Sept. 2012. Web. 24 Sept. 2012. . Kranner, Andres, MD. N.p., Nov. 2004. Web. . Laxton, AW. "Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. . Lieb, Wolfgang, MD. JAMA. N.p., 16 Dec. 2009. Web. . "MARKTECH." The Technology of the Mark of the Beast. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2012. . Pedersen, Tracy. "Brain Pacemaker Relieves Severe Depression | Psych Central News." Psych Central.com. N.p., n.d. Web. . Song, Sora. "How Deep-Brain Stimulation Works." Time. Time, 16 July 2006. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. .
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