CCR (Corners of Circumscribing Coordinate Rectangle) (rnd-f, rnd-g, then lin-d) f=MinVecX≡(minXx1..minXxn) g≡MaxVecX≡(maxXx1..maxXxn), d≡(g-f)/|g-f| Sequence thru main diagonal pairs, {f, g} lexicographically. For each, create d. Notes: No calculation required to find f and g (assuming f1=MnVec RnGp>4 none start  g1=MxVec RnGp>4 Sub 0 7 vir18... Clus1 1 47 ver30 Sub 0 53 ver49.. Clus2 0 74 set14 SubClus1 Lin>4 none f2=0001 RnGp>4 none CCR-1. Do SpS((x-f)o(x-f)) round gap analysis CCR-2. Do SpS((x-g)o(x-g)) rnd gap analysis. CCR-3. Do SpS((xod)) linear gap analysis. SubCluster2 g2=1110 RnGp>4 none This ends SubClus2 = 47 setosa only Lin>4 none f1=0000 RnGp>4 none g1=1111 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f3=0010 RnGp>4 none f2=0001 RnGp>4 none g2=1110 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none Lin>4 none f3=0010 RnGp>4 none g3=1101 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f4=0011 RnGp>4 none f4=0011 RnGp>4 none g4=1100 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f5=0100 RnGp>4 none g5=1011 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none g3=1101 RnGp>4 none g4=1100 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f5=0100 RnGp>4 none g5=1011 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f6=0101 RnGp>4 none g6=1010 RnGp>4 none f6=0101 RnGp>4 1 19 set26 0 28 ver49 0 31 set42 0 31 ver8 0 32 set36 0 32 ver44 1 35 ver11 0 41 ver13 ver49 0.0 19.8 3.9 21.3 3.9 7.2 Lin>4 none f7=0110 RnGp>4 none g7=1001 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f8=0111 RnGp>4 none g8=1000 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f7=0110 RnGp>4 1 28 ver13 0 33 vir49 f8=0111 RnGp>4 none set42 ver8 19.8 3.9 0.0 21.6 21.6 0.0 10.4 23.9 21.8 1.4 23.8 4.6 set36 ver44 ver11 21.3 3.9 7.2 10.4 21.8 23.8 23.9 1.4 4.6 0.0 24.2 27.1 24.2 0.0 3.6 27.1 3.6 0.0 g6=1010 RnGp>4 none g7=1001 RnGp>4 none g8=1000 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none Lin>4 none Lin>4 none MaxVecX and MinVecX have been calculated and residualized when PTreeSetX was captured.) 3. (and 2.?) may be unproductive in finding new subclusters (either because 1 finds almost all or because 2 and/or 3 find the same ones) and could be skipped (very likely if dimension is high, since the main diagonal corners are typically far from X, in a high dimensional vector space and thus the radii of a round gap is large and large radii rnd gaps are near linear, suggesting a will find all the subclusters that b and c would find. 2. good!, else setosa/versicolor+virginica are not separated! 3. is unproductive, suggesting productive to calculate 1., 2. but having done that, 3. will probably not be productive. Next consider only 3. to see if it is as productive as 1.+2. Subc2.1 ver49 ver8 ver44 ver11 CCR is as good as the combo (projection on d appears to be as accurate as the combination of square length of f and of g). This is probably because the round gaps (centered at the corners) are nearly linear by the time they get to the set X itself. To compare the time costs, we note: Combo (p-x)o(p-x) = pop + xox2xop = pop + k=1..nxk2 + k=1..n(-2pk)xk has n multiplications in the second term, n scalar multiplications and n additions in the third term. For both p=f and p=g, then, it takes 2n multiplications, 2n scalar multiplications and 2n additions. For CCR, xod = k=1..n(dk)xk involves n scalar mults and n additions. It appears to be cheaper (timewise) This ends SubClus1 = 95 ver and vir samples only
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CCR(fgd) (Corners of Circumscribing Coordinate Rectangle) f1=minVecX≡(minXx1..minXxn) (0000) g1=MaxVecX≡(MaxXx1..MaxXxn) (1111), d=(g-f)/|g-f| Sequence thru main diagonal pairs, {f, g} lexicographically. For each, create d. f1=MnVec RnGp>4 none start  g1=MxVec RnGp>4 Sub 0 7 vir18... Clus1 1 47 ver30 Sub 0 53 ver49.. Clus2 0 74 set14 SubClus1 Lin>4 none f2=0001 RnGp>4 none CCR(f) Do SpS((x-f)o(x-f)) round gap analysis CCR(g) Do SpS((x-g)o(x-g)) round gap analysis. CCR(d) Do SpS((xod)) linear gap analysis. Notes: No calculation required to find f and g (assuming MaxVecX and minVecX have been calculated and residualized when PTreeSetX was captured.) SubCluster2 g2=1110 RnGp>4 none This ends SubClus2 = 47 setosa only Lin>4 none f1=0000 RnGp>4 none g1=1111 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f3=0010 RnGp>4 none f2=0001 RnGp>4 none g2=1110 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none Lin>4 none f3=0010 RnGp>4 none g3=1101 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f4=0011 RnGp>4 none f4=0011 RnGp>4 none g4=1100 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f5=0100 RnGp>4 none g5=1011 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none If the dimension is high, since the main diagonal corners are liekly far from X and thus the large radii make the round gaps nearly linear. g3=1101 RnGp>4 none g4=1100 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f5=0100 RnGp>4 none g5=1011 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f6=0101 RnGp>4 none g6=1010 RnGp>4 none f6=0101 RnGp>4 1 19 set26 0 28 ver49 0 31 set42 0 31 ver8 0 32 set36 0 32 ver44 1 35 ver11 0 41 ver13 ver49 0.0 19.8 3.9 21.3 3.9 7.2 Lin>4 none f7=0110 RnGp>4 none g7=1001 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f8=0111 RnGp>4 none f7=0110 RnGp>4 1 28 ver13 0 33 vir49 f8=0111 RnGp>4 none set42 ver8 19.8 3.9 0.0 21.6 21.6 0.0 10.4 23.9 21.8 1.4 23.8 4.6 g6=1010 RnGp>4 none g7=1001 RnGp>4 none g8=1000 RnGp>4 none g8=1000 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none set36 ver44 ver11 21.3 3.9 7.2 10.4 21.8 23.8 23.9 1.4 4.6 0.0 24.2 27.1 24.2 0.0 3.6 27.1 3.6 0.0 This ends SubClus1 = 95 ver and vir samples only Lin>4 none Lin>4 none Lin>4 none Subc2.1 ver49 ver8 ver44 ver11
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Replay    QoE measurement  Old way: QoE = Server + Network  Modern way: QoE = Servers + Network + Browser Browsers are smart  Parallelism on multiple connections  JavaScript execution can trigger additional queries  Rendering introduces delays in resource access  Caching and pre-fetching HTTP replay cannot approximate real Web browser access to resources 0.25s 0.25s 0.06s 1.02s 0.67s 0.90s 1.19s 0.14s 0.97s 1.13s 0.70s 0.28s 0.27s 0.12s 3.86s 1.88s Total network time GET /wiki/page 1 Analyze page GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET combined.min.css jquery-ui.css main-ltr.css commonPrint.css shared.css flaggedrevs.css Common.css wikibits.js jquery.min.js ajax.js mwsuggest.js plugins...js Print.css Vector.css raw&gen=css ClickTracking.js Vector...js js&useskin WikiTable.css CommonsTicker.css flaggedrevs.js Infobox.css Messagebox.css Hoverbox.css Autocount.css toc.css Multilingual.css mediawiki_88x31.png 2 Rendering + JavaScript GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET ExtraTools.js Navigation.js NavigationTabs.js Displaytitle.js RandomBook.js Edittools.js EditToolbar.js BookSearch.js MediaWikiCommon.css 3 Rendering + JavaScript GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET GET 4 GET GET GET GET GET GET page-base.png page-fade.png border.png 1.png external-link.png bullet-icon.png user-icon.png tab-break.png tab-current.png tab-normal-fade.png search-fade.png Rendering search-ltr.png arrow-down.png wiki.png portal-break.png portal-break.png arrow-right.png generate page send files send files mBenchLab – [email protected] BROWSERS MATTER FOR QOE? send files send files + 2.21s total rendering time 6
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Classification: Permissions (example) Requested Permissions: Built-in: android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORA GE android.permission.CALL_PHONE android.permission.EXPAND_STATUS_BAR android.permission.GET_TASKS android.permission.READ_CONTACTS android.permission.SET_WALLPAPER android.permission.SET_WALLPAPER_HINTS android.permission.VIBRATE android.permission.WRITE_SETTINGS android.permission.READ_PHONE_STATE android.permission.ACCESS_NETWORK_STATE android.permission.WRITE_APN_SETTINGS android.permission.RECEIVE_SMS android.permission.RECEIVE_MMS android.permission.RECEIVE_WAP_PUSH android.permission.INTERNET android.permission.SEND_SMS android.permission.READ_SMS android.permission.WRITE_SMS 11 Non-standard: com.android.launcher.permission.INSTALL_SHORTC UT com.android.launcher.permission.UNINSTALL_SHOR TCUT com.android.launcher.permission.READ_SETTINGS com.android.launcher.permission.WRITE_SETTINGS android.permission.GLOBAL_SEARCH_CONTROL Represented as a bit vector: 00000100 00000000 00000000 00100000 00000000 00010000 01000000 10000000 00000100 00101000 01110001 00000000 00011000 00000101 00100001 1 And three sets of strings: [“com”],[“launcher”],[“CONTROL”, “GLOBAL”, “INSTALL”, “READ”, “SEARCH”, “SETTINGS”, “SHORTCUT”]
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d3 Sub 0 Clus1 1 Sub 0 Clus2 0 10 19 30 69 set23...50set+vir39 set25 ver49...50ver_49vir vir19 d5 (f5=vir23, g5=set14) none f5 none g5 none d5 (f5=vir32, g5=set14) none f5 none g5 none d5 (f5=vir6, g5=set14) none f5 none g5 none (d1+d3)/sqr(2) clus1 none (d1+d3)/sqr(2) clus2: ver49 ver8 ver44 ver11 0 57.3 ver49 0.0 3.9 3.9 7.2 0 58.0 ver8 3.9 0.0 1.4 4.6 0 58.7 ver44 3.9 1.4 0.0 3.6 1 60.1 ver11 7.2 4.6 3.6 0.0 0 64.3 ver10 none (d3+d4)/sqr(2) clus1 none (d3+d4)/sqr(2) clus2 none (d1+d3+d4)/sqr(3) clus1 1 44.5 set19 0 55.4 vir39 (d1+d3+d4)/sqr(3) clus2 none (d1+d2+d3+d4)/sqr(4) clus1 (d1+d2+d3+d4)/sqr(4) clus2 none d5 (f5=vir19, g5=set14) none f5 1 0.0 vir19 clus2 0 4.1 vir23 g5 none d5 (f5=vir18, g5=set14) none f5 1 0.0 vir18 clus2 1 4.1 vir32 0 8.2 vir6 g5 none
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Model Structure Tree Structure Specified for the Nested Logit Model Sample proportions are marginal, not conditional. Choices marked with * are excluded for the IIA test. ----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+------+--Trunk (prop.)|Limb (prop.)|Branch (prop.)|Choice (prop.)|Weight|IIA ----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+------+--Trunk{1} 1.00000|TRAVEL 1.00000|PRIVATE .55714|AIR .27619| 1.000| | | |CAR .28095| 1.000| | |PUBLIC .44286|TRAIN .30000| 1.000| | | |BUS .14286| 1.000| ----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+------+--+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | Model Specification: Table entry is the attribute that | | multiplies the indicated parameter. | +--------+------+-----------------------------------------------+ | Choice |******| Parameter | | |Row 1| GC TTME INVT INVC A_AIR | | |Row 2| AIR_HIN1 A_TRAIN TRA_HIN3 A_BUS BUS_HIN4 | +--------+------+-----------------------------------------------+ |AIR | 1| GC TTME INVT INVC Constant | | | 2| HINC none none none none | |CAR | 1| GC TTME INVT INVC none | | | 2| none none none none none | |TRAIN | 1| GC TTME INVT INVC none | | | 2| none Constant HINC none none | |BUS | 1| GC TTME INVT INVC none | | | 2| none none none Constant HINC | +---------------------------------------------------------------+
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Entrepreneurship: is it good enough to be social? John F. McVea and Michael J. Naughton Introduction • The term Social Entrepreneurship has experienced a huge growth in influence over that last decade. The literature proposes a number of advantages to social entrepreneurship as a frame of reference: • Promoting innovation within non-profits • Leveraging and focusing scarce philanthropic resources • Faster response to strategic challenges • Infusion of business skills to non-business world • Involvement of non government assets in social problems • Creation of hybrid (blurred) organizations between for profit and non profit worlds. It is widely observed that practice has outpaced theoretical development leading to little agreement on definitions or frameworks for social entrepreneurship. We believe that widespread and unchallenged acceptance of the term Social Entrepreneurship masks some dangers and has contributed to confusion in the field. We believe that if we apply some insights from Catholic Social Teaching to the issue of social entrepreneurship we can move beyond the false dichotomy of Entrepreneurship/ Social Entrepreneurship and identify three specific entrepreneurial strategies which support a more robust discussion of the nature of the work that is entrepreneurship. We believe that the field would benefit from spending less time discussing social entrepreneurship and more time discussion the nature of the good entrepreneur. • • • • • The dangers of naïve acceptance of Social Entrepreneurship • • • The rhetorical risk: • Narrow definition: if S.E. is simply used to rebrand non-profits then much of the value of the new activities, hybrid design, stimulation of new resources and innovation is lost. • Implied dichotomy: if “good” ventures are termed “social” it can imply that other forms of entrepreneurship are “asocial” or “anti social” • Boundarylessness: In contrast, if all business activities are deemed “social”, to some degree or other, then the term loses all meaning focus on the distinctive phenomenon that is S.E. Despite these risks we are more concerned with a risk beyond rhetoric; the risk of undermining the meaning of work, particularly from the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching. While this perspective is drawn from the Catholic tradition, accepting the content of CST does not require acceptance of Catholic faith (Guitan, 2009). The three goods of social entrepreneurship • We are concerned by the side-effects of a concentration thesis that suggests that the moral responsibilities of entrepreneurship can be concentrated in a subset of businesses called social enterprises, presumably leaving other enterprise to simply concentrate on serving themselves. • We are concerned by the impact such a concentration thesis could have on the conception of the meaning of work beyond the world of social enterprise. • We are concerned with how such an approach can focus attention solely on the altruistic contributions of entrepreneurial ventures as the sole measure of their contribution to the Common Good • Instead we propose that, rather than trying to determine the difference between entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship, it would be more productive to focus on the questions “What is Good Entrepreneurship? What action and activities define that goodness?” • We further propose that, by apply the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching, we can identify three specific strategies through which entrepreneurial ventures may contribute to the Common Good thus suggesting that good entrepreneurship requires a focus on: 1. Good Goods. The primary way an entrepreneurial venture can contribute to the Common Good is by bringing into existence new products and services which are inherently good and which enrich lives and minimize any unintended harms. This can include what we call the “entrepreneurship of the mundane”, that is, the manufacture of the nuts and bolts and basic necessities of life as well as the creation of life saving treatments. However, inclusion of good goods as a primary moral contribution of entrepreneurship must also require of the entrepreneur analysis of what goods are not good, and what aspects of even good goods should be redesigned or rethought in order to minimize unintended consequences. We find, in our discussions, that this is a much under appreciated dimension of the good of entrepreneurship. 2. Good Work. The second way an entrepreneurial venture can contribute to the Common Good is through the nature of the work that is carried out by the venture. This dimension has several aspects both internal and external to the entrepreneur: • The development of good character in the entrepreneur. This aspect of the good is derived from the subjective dimension of work, that is, just as how-we-work ends up changing the world, so working-on-the-world changes us. Most professionals spend the majority of their waking hours at work. As habits, character and wisdom are developed through experience and activity, for the entrepreneur, doing good work is an important opportunity to develop character. Society as a whole is better off for having good, successful entrepreneurial leaders who, through that calling, can become leaders of character. This dimension of the entrepreneurial good is widely unappreciated even by entrepreneurs themselves • Good relations with employees, customers and other stakeholders. Value creation and trade creates opportunities for the building of social relationships. The central question is “Are you in good relation with those with whom you create value?’ Do your employees have opportunity to develop as people? 3. Good Wealth. The third way the good entrepreneur can contribute to the Common Good is through the creation of good wealth. Good wealth requires a balance of reward for labor/ creativity with the provision of a living wage to all. Good wealth is often captured by individual action but has social strings attached. From the CST perspective the creation of good wealth implies a particular solidarity with the poor. One way to contribute to the common good is to donate altruistically to those in need. But even here, altruism is only one of a number of possible strategies. Good entrepreneurs may also contribute by donating their time or their particular skills. Indeed, since the donation of time and work often requires physical interaction with those in need, it often generates a solidarity of far greater integrity. Finally, it must be emphasized that altruism, for the entrepreneur, is always dependent, indeed subsequent to the creation of good wealth in the first place. Literature cited Alvord, Sarah, David L. Brown, and Christine W. Letts, 2004. “Social Entrepreneurship and Societal Transformation: An Exploratory Study,” The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 40:260. Benedict XVI, Caritas et veritate,   Boschee, Jerr. 1998 “What does it take to be a social entrepreneur?” National Centre for Social Entrepreneurs (www.socialentrepreneurs.org/whatdoes/html), 5pp.   Cannon, Carl. 2000. “Charity for profit: how the new social entrepreneurs are creating good by sharing wealth” National Journal, June 16: 1898-1904.   Christie, Michael and Benson Honig. 2006. “Social entrepreneurship: New research findings.” Journal of World Business. 41: 1-5.   Dees, Gregory, J., 1998. “The Meaning of ‘Social Entrepreneurship,’” Original Draft: 10/3.   Drucker, P.F. 1985. Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New York: Harper & Row.   Fowler, Alan. “NGDOs as a moment in history: beyond aid to social entrepreneurship or civic innovation?” Third World Quarterly, 21(4): 637-654.   Gregg, S. and G. Preece: 1999, Christianity and Entrepreneurship (The Centre for Independent Studies Limited, St. Leonards, NSW, Australia).   Hibbert, Sally A., Gillian Hogg and Theresa Quinn. “Consumer response to social entrepreneurship: The case of the Big Issue in Scotland.” International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. 7(3): 288-301.   Johnson, Sherrill, 2000. “Literature Review on Social Entrepreneurship,” Canadian Center for social Entrepreneurship. (http://www.bus.ualberta.ca/ccse/Publications/).   John Paul II, Pope.: 1992 Laborem Exercens (On Human Work): 1981, in D. J. O’Brien and T. A. Shannon, (eds.), Catholic Social Thought (Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY).   John Paul II, Pope.: 1992 Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (On Social Concern): 1987 in D. J. O’Brien and T. A. Shannon, (eds.), Catholic Social Thought (Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY).   Kennedy, R., G, Atkinson, and M. Naughton, (eds.): 1994, Dignity of Work: John Paul II Speaks To Managers and Workers (University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland).   Mair, Johanna and Ernesto Noboa, 2003. “Social Entrepreneurship: How Intentions to Create a Social Enterprise get Formed,” IESE Business School.   Mair, Johanna and Ignasi Marti, 2006. “Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight,” Journal of World Business. 41: 36-44.   Melé, D.:2001, ‘A Challenge for Business Enterprises: Introducing the Primacy of the Subjective Meaning of Work in Work Organization’, (http://www.stthomas.edu/cathstudies/cst/mgmt/le/papers/mele.htm) Conclusions We have argued that, while there is great promise in the contemporary social entrepreneurship movement, there are also a number of important dangers. We propose that, if we confront rather than acquiesce to these dangers, we can use the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching to broaden the scope of entrepreneurial ventures that we study, to enrich the moral dimension of entrepreneurial strategy and to deepen the teaching of entrepreneurship as a whole. We recommend the following to move toward these contributions: • Incorporate social entrepreneurship into entrepreneurship in a way that enhances the three goods of entrepreneurship. Specifically we propose replacing the questions “What is social entrepreneurship?” with the questions “What does it mean to be a Good entrepreneur?” From this perspective we can then apply what we have called the three goods of entrepreneurship as a means of supplying critical challenge and inspiration to all forms of entrepreneurship such that the true moral dimension of this critical force in our lives comes into fruition. • Encourage research within the entrepreneurship discipline that addresses traditional social entrepreneurial issues such as micro lending, fair trade products, etc. • Develop bridge courses such as Theo/Cath 306 which help students understand and experience the meaning of the good entrepreneur as well as connect students to the spiritual and moral principles of a good entrepreneur. • Expose entrepreneurship students to so-called social entrepreneurs as well so-called conventional good entrepreneurs so they can see the spectrum of entrepreneurial activities. © File copyright Colin Purrington. You may use for making your poster, of course, but please do not plagiarize, adapt, or put on your own site. Also, do not upload this file, even if modified, to third-party file-sharing sites such as doctoc.com. If you have insatiable need to post a template onto your own site, search the internet for a different template to steal. File downloaded from http://colinpurrington.com/tips/ academic/posterdesign. Acknowledgments I am indebted to Michael Naughton and Laura Dunham for their reflections and thoughts on this paper.
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Viewing and Taking Ownership • Viewing Ownership • View file or folder ownership of a file or folder from the Owner tab in the advanced security settings of the file/folder properties • Properties of file or folder /Security / Advanced / Owner • Taking Ownership • Take ownership of a file or folder from the Owner tab in the advanced security settings of the file/folder properties • Properties of file or folder / Security / Advanced / Owner /Edit • Select a new owner from the Change Owner to Box or add a new user to the list and select that new user (add a new user or group by using the Other Users or Groups button) • Use the Replace Owners on Subcontainers and Objects with caution. • Taking ownership does not automatically add the owner to the file/folder’s ACL. • Example: If an administrator has no permissions to a file or folder he/she can take ownership of the file/folder but administrators are not automatically added to the security tab of that file or folder – the new entry must be added. 2
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