The hearing aid today • Today there are 5 Major types of hearing aids • Behind the ear hearing aids (BTE)-can be used for slight to nearly complete hearing loss • On the ear hearing aids(also known as mini BTE’s)- less visible version of BTE’s • In the ear hearing aids (ITE) –Very large and fits in ear • In the canal hearing aids (ITC) -fits in ear canal used for mild hearing loss • Completely in canal hearing aids (CIC)used for mild hearing loss very difficult to adjust and maintain
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How should one define Hearing Loss?  Hearing can become impaired if the hair cells in the cochlea become damaged. This in turn causes the vibrations in the inner ear to be incapable to be altered into neural impulses and therefore does not get send to the brain which results in loss of hearing.  Hearing Loss can be rated by using a scale based on the threshold of hearing Mild Hearing Loss= 25-40dB ( can hear decent and is manageable) Moderate Hearing Loss= 41-55dB ( can not hear conversations clearly if there is background noise) Moderately Severe Hearing Loss= 56-70 db. Severe Hearing Loss= 71-90 dB. (Loud Speech is difficult to hear and interpret) Profound Hearing Loss=91+ dB. (People will have difficulty understanding amplified speech) The normal hearing level for adults ranges from 0-25 decibels.      
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Part 3 – The Ear: Hearing and Balance 15.7 Structure of the Ear • The ear has three major areas: – External (outer) ear: hearing only – Middle ear (tympanic cavity): hearing only – Internal (inner) ear: hearing and equilibrium • Receptors for hearing and balance respond to separate stimuli and are activated independently © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
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Bibliography • Valente, Michael. Hearing Aids: Standards, Options, and Limitations. New York: Thieme, 2002. Web. 7 Oct 2012. • Edwards, Brent. "The Future of Digital Hearing Aids." Trends in Amplification’s Special Issue on Digital Hearing Aids: 2-6. Web. 7 Oct. 2012. ." • Dillon, Harvey. Hearing Aids. New York: Thieme, 2001. Web. 7 Oct. 2012. • "Hearing Aid." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 28 Sept. 2012. Web. 07 Oct. 2012. . • "Ear Wax Museum, a History of the Hearing Industry, Hearing Aids, Assistive Listening Devices, Etc." Ear Wax Museum, a History of the Hearing Industry, Hearing Aids, Assistive Listening Devices, Etc. Starkey Labs, n.d. Web. 07 Oct. 2012. • . • Colin Blakemore and Shelia Jennett. “hearing aid.” The Oxford Companion to the Body. 2001. Encyclopedia.com. 7 Oct. 2012 .
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Hearing Loss • 4 Types of Hearing Loss. • Conductive: Sound is not transmitted efficiently from the outer ear to the cochlea. • Sensorineural: Hearing loss due to damage to the cochlea or nerve endings in the inner ear. • Mixed: Combination of Conductive and Sensorineural hearing loss. • Unilateral hearing: Hearing in one ear, Hearing loss in the other.
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Hearing Loss Categories  Hearing Loss can be divided into two categories     Conductive and Sensorineural. Conductive hearing loss is when the sound is not conducted efficiently through the outer eardrum and tiny bones of the middle part of the ear. Conductive hearing loss results in a reduction in sound level or the ability to hear small things. Sensorineural hearing loss is when there is damage to the inner ear(cochlea) or to the nerve pathway from the inner ear to the brain. Sensorineural hearing loss cannot be medically repaired and is one of the most common types of permanent hearing loss.
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Work Cited cont. • • • • • • "Otosclerosis." National Institution of Deafness and other Communication Disorders. May 1999. National Institute of Health, Web. 30 Jan 2010. . "Type, Degree, and Configuration of Hearing Loss." American-Speach-LanguageHearing Association. 2009. American-Speach-Language-Hearing Association, Web. 31 Jan 2010. . Courtesy of the plots is from: Verhaegen. MD, Veronique J. O., Jef J. S. Mulder, MD. PhD, Emmanuel A. M. Mylanus, MD, PhD, Cor W. R. J. Cremers, MD. PhD, and AdF.M. Snik,PhD. "Profound Mixed Hearing Loss: Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid System or Cochlear Implant?." Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology. 118.10 (2009): 693-697. Print. Photo for degrees of hearing loss courtesy of: "Type, Degree, and Configuration of Hearing Loss." American-Speach-LanguageHearing Association. 2009. American-Speach-Language-Hearing Association, Web. 31 Jan 2010. .
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The Healthy Human Ear • Three Sections: (Outer ear, Middle ear, and Inner ear) • Sound waves are picked up by the outer ear and channeled to the middle ear • The middle ear relays and amplifies the sound waves headed towards the inner ear • The sound waves enter the inner ear and are translated into electrical impulses that The brain can interpret
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15.7 Structure of the Ear • The ear has three major areas: – External (outer) ear: hearing only – Middle ear (tympanic cavity): hearing only – Internal (inner) ear: hearing and equilibrium • Receptors for hearing and balance respond to separate stimuli and are activated independently Copyright © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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What is the Bionic Ear?  A Bionic Ear, which is known as a cochlear implant, is an artificial hearing device, designed to produce useful hearing sensations by electrically stimulating nerves inside the inner ear.  The Bionic Ear provides sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing.  The Bionic ear consists of a receiver and stimulator as well as a speech processor and headset.
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What is Esteem?  A totally implantable hearing system that is implanted under the skin behind the ear and within the middle ear space  For moderate and severe sensorineural hearing loss  Sensorineural hearing loss -- Loss of hearing resulting from problems in the inner ear, the cochlear nerve, or in the brain.  Has no microphone  Uses the functioning eardrum to pick up vibrations  Adjusts vibrations to individual hearing needs  Pacemaker like battery  Needs replacement after 4.5 to 9 years of continuous use.  battery replaced in a minor outpatient surgical operation.
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History • Late 1700s: Early hearing aids consisting of a horn and a long thin tube that concentrated the sound to the ear were created. These were known as ear trumpets • In the 19th century hearing trumpets were mass produced to aid the hearing impaired and partially deaf • In 1898 the first carbon-type hearing aid was made due to the invention of the carbon microphone. • In 1899 The first carbon-type hearing aid was patented by Miller Reese Hutchinson • In 1920 vacuum tubes were added to the hearing aids to improve sound quality and clarity.
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Conclusion • • • • • • • • • Typically, cochlea implants cost more to fit to a patient and the surgery is more invasive than the surgery required to fasten the bone anchored hearing aid to the skull. The cost for a CI ranges from 50,000 to 100,000 USSD. The cost for a BAHA is around 40,000 USSD for the device and surgery. However, despite the extra cost and surgery, it is highly recommended to use a CI if either of the cut-off points are met, due to the potential benefits, especially for those with progressive hearing loss. The patients from experiment 1 have been monitored for more than 6 years after the CI, and have not suffered any detrimental side effects. The BAHA seems more effective for patients who suffer from conductive hearing loss. For those who have mixed or progressive sensorineural hearing loss, the CI is the better choice. Choosing the right hearing aid saves the patient a lot of expenses, and this research directly benefits the patient in that way. The bionic ear that works for all types of hearing loss is still a long ways away, but being able to determine which types of cochlea stimulation work best for each type of hearing loss is the first step down that road.
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Hearing • No high-quality studies were found on hearing screening for older children or adolescents. In spite of the rising incidence of hearing loss, presumably related to environmental or headphone and ear bud acoustic trauma, hearing screening questions used in the primary care setting fail to identify adolescents at risk of hearing loss • Universal hearing screening is being considered for once in Early, Middle, and Late Adolescence • Screening in these age groups may be enhanced by including 6000 and 8000 Hertz high frequencies in the screening audiogram • In addition to screening, counseling on the risk of hearing loss due to environmental exposures may be considered
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Hearing Protection • Examples – Disposable foam plugs – Molded ear plugs – Noise cancelling ear plugs – Ear muffs • Consider Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) of devices PPT 10-hr. Construction – PPE v.05.18.15 NIOSH/John Rekus/elcosh.org NIOSH/John Rekus/elcosh.org 23 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup
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UNDERSTANDING THE DEAF AND HARD OF HEARING STUDENT: 1. Because speech reading is fatiguing, students with hearing loss may have difficulty holding their attention for long periods. 2. Students, including deaf and hard of hearing, can learn to look attentive and appear to understand when they do not. Ask direct questions. 3. It is better, for understanding, for other persons to be in close proximity to the deaf and hard of hearing student. 4. Speak to the student and call his/her name for attention. Touching or tapping the arm should not be any more necessary than with other students. 5. Remind hearing students to speak in complete sentences, to enunciate clearly and to face in the direction of the student with hearing loss. 6. Students with hearing loss need to learn any “in” expressions or words used by hearing students.
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II CONDUCTIVE LOSS Occurs when there is a problem in the outer or middle ear. This type of loss can usually be reduced or eliminated through medical and/or surgical treatment. CAUSES: infections that fill the middle ear with fluid ruptured ear drum interference (such as a build-up of ear wax) deformity in the ear structures damage caused by a foreign object (i.e. a pencil, stick, hairpin, bean) missing or occluded (obstructed) ear canal allergies It must be remembered, however, that in young children periods of congestion caused by middle ear infections can result in delays in language and speech acquisition.
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Anatomy: 3 areas of the ear  External (outer) ear – hearing only  Middle ear (tympanic cavity) – hearing only  Inner ear (bony labyrinth) – hearing and balance
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Treatment A hearing aid is a electric acoustic device that fits into or behind a persons ear. The purpose of is to amplify or modulate sound for the person wearing it. There are different types of hearing aid devices such as body worn aids, behind the ear aids, receiver in the canal, in the ear aids, invisible canal hearing aids, extended wear hearing aids etc.
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More Experiment 1 results • Patient 5 suffered from otosclerosis of the left ear, and ear-aches from his air conductive hearing aids. • Before he was fitted with a BAHA, bone and air conduction audiometry tests showed significant hearing loss. 60 dB below 1kHz, and 70 dB above 1kHz. • After being fitted with a BAHA, however, the hearing loss was still 60dB and the PS65 value was less than 5%. • 5 years after being fitted with a cochlear implant, audiometry tests showed improvement in his hearing. The hearing loss was 30 dB with a PS65 of 90%.
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Hearing Aids  Hearing Aids are used to amplify sound, and improve the hearing of an impaired listener.  It is estimated that 1 in every 10 people in the world suffer from some form of hearing loss.  Hearing loss is caused by damaged cochlea in the ear, or in some cases earwax, fluid in the ear, a genetic problem, or a punctured eardrum.
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The hearing aid today cont. • The newest hearing aids are small and self-adjust to allow clearer hearing. They also adjust when the user enters loud areas allowing the users inner-ear not to be harmed • The newest hearing aids can wirelessly receive sounds from electronic devices such as computers and T.V.’s • The digital hearing aid has become the main type of hearing aid used, as it is more versatile and produces clearer sounds
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What are the Degrees of Hearing Loss?     Mild to moderate hearing loss = 26 dB -70 dB loss is considered hard of hearing. Severe to Profound Hearing Loss = loss greater than 70 dB. Separation of deaf individuals from those who are hard of hearing = 90 dB or greater loss. How one is able to use residual hearing is important in addition to degree of hearing loss. Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Welders must wear protective clothing for    Protection from sparks, spatter and UV radiation Insulation from electric shock Protective clothing includes …      Fire-proof clothing without rolled sleeves, cuffs or frays Work boots Welding gloves, jackets, bibs, and fire-proof pants Welding cap, helmet and safety glasses Ear protection – ear plugs and muffs http://www.lincolnelectric.com/knowledge/training/weldcurriculum.asp
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The Middle Ear (Tympanic Cavity) – air-filled cavity of temporal bone, hearing only  Lateral border = tympanic membrane (eardrum)  3 bones = malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup)  Transfer sound vibrations to inner ear  Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube connects middle ear to throat  Equalizes pressure inside middle ear  Pathway for ear infections
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