PLACEMENT HOW? Placement Placement Test Test Transfer Transfer Credits Credits SAT SAT or or ACT ACT Scores Scores High High School School AP AP Scores Scores (Mathematics) (Mathematics) WHAT TO DO? Take Take placement placement test test on on any any campus campus at at Testing Testing Center. Center. Accuplacer Accuplacer MATH MATH can can be be taken taken twice. twice. Students Students who who wish wish higher higher placement placement must must then then “appeal”. “appeal”. Appeal Appeal is is request to take a pencil-and-paper type test on material from the course they request to take a pencil-and-paper type test on material from the course they placed placed into. into. Bring Bring transcript transcript showing showing general general education education math math credits credits from from another another college college or or university university to to CCBC CCBC for for evaluation. evaluation. If If completed completed in in Maryland, Maryland, the the highest highest level level developmental math course, Intermediate Algebra can be used for placement. developmental math course, Intermediate Algebra can be used for placement. Placement Placement by by SAT SAT MATH MATH score score of of 500 500 or or higher higher (or (or by by ACT ACT MATH MATH score score 21 21 or or higher) places the student into an entry-level general education math course higher) places the student into an entry-level general education math course (MATH (MATH 111, 111, 125, 125, 131/2/3, 131/2/3, 135, 135, 163). 163). For For higher higher placement, placement, the the student student must must take take Accuplacer MATH. MATH. Accuplacer Students Students with with documentation documentation of of AP AP math math scores scores of of 3, 3, 4, 4, or or 5 5 from from high high school school can can be awarded college credit and placement according to this chart. be awarded college credit and placement according to this chart.
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Joint Factory Revolute Joint Factory 1.      CreateRevoluteJoint(PhysicsSimulator physicsSimulator, Body body1, Body body2, Vector2 initialAnchorPosition) 2.      CreateRevoluteJoint(Body body1, Body body2, Vector2 initialAnchorPosition)   Pin Joint Factory 1.      CreatePinJoint(PhysicsSimulator physicsSimulator, Body body1, Vector2 anchor1, Body body2, Vector2 anchor2) 2.      CreatePinJoint(Body body1, Vector2 anchor1, Body body2, Vector2 anchor2)   Slider Joint Factory 1.      CreateSliderJoint(PhysicsSimulator physicsSimulator, Body body1, Vector2 anchor1, Body body2, Vector2 anchor2, float min, float max) 2.      CreateSliderJoint(Body body1, Vector2 anchor1, Body body2, Vector2 anchor2, float min, float max)   Angle Joint Factory 1.      CreateAngleJoint(PhysicsSimulator physicsSimulator, Body body1, Body body2) 2.      CreateAngleJoint(Body body1, Body body2) 3.      CreateAngleJoint(PhysicsSimulator physicsSimulator, Body body1, Body body2, float softness, float biasFactor) 4.      CreateAngleJoint(Body body1, Body body2, float softness, float biasFactor)   Angle Limit Joint Factory 1.      CreateAngleLimitJoint (PhysicsSimulator physicsSimulator, Body body1, Body body2, float min, float max) 2.      CreateAngleLimitJoint (Body body1, Body body2, float min, float max)  
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Spring Factory Linear Spring Factory ·         CreateLinearSpring(PhysicsSimulator physicsSimulator, Body body1, Vector2 anchor1, Body body2, Vector2 anchor2, float springConstant, float dampningConstant) ·         CreateLinearSpring(Body body1, Vector2 anchor1, Body body2, Vector2 anchor2, float springConstant, float dampningConstant)   Fixed Linear Spring Factory ·         CreateFixedLinearSpring(PhysicsSimulator physicsSimulator, Body body, Vector2 anchor1, Vector2 anchor2, float springConstant, float dampningConstant) ·         CreateFixedLinearSpring(Body body, Vector2 anchor1, Vector2 anchor2, float springConstant, float dampningConstant)   Angle Spring Factory ·         CreateAngleSpring(PhysicsSimulator physicsSimulator, Body body1, Body body2, float springConstant, float dampningConstant) ·         CreateAngleSpring(Body body1, Body body2, float springConstant, float dampningConstant)   Fixed Angle Spring Factory ·         CreateFixedAngleSpring(PhysicsSimulator physicsSimulator, Body body, float springConstant, float dampningConstant) ·         CreateFixedAngleSpring(Body body, float springConstant, float
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Experiments • Data Placement Techniques – Purlieus proposed locality and load-aware data placement (LLADP) – Random data placement (RDP) • VM placement techniques: – Locality-unaware VMPlacement(LUAVP) – Map-locality aware VM placement (MLVP) – Reduce-locality aware VM placement (RLVP) – Map and Reduce-locality aware VM placement (MRLVP) – Hybrid locality-aware VM placement (HLVP): Our proposed HLVP technique adaptively picks the placement strategy based on type of the input job. It uses MLVP for map-input heavy, RLVP for reduceinput heavy jobs and MRLVP for map and reduce-input heavy jobs.
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What is a placement test?   NOVA requires a minimum skill level for entry into the majority of its courses. The tools we use to determine your skill level are called Placement Tests. Three Placement Tests:      Compass® English Placement Test Accuplacer® English Placement Test VPTMath Placement Test Ask your testing center representative You do not about need to which take all the testtests! is appropriate for you. Placement Tests are not pass/fail Placement Tests tell you what you are “eligible” to take.
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Through Movement We Find Health Nia - Mind-Body Fitnes Nia - Non-Impact Aerobics Nia - NeuroMuscular Integrative Action Nia - Swahili: “purpose” Nia - Persian: “truth”   Nia: for Your Body Mind Spirit The Feet - The Hands that Touch the Earth Oftentimes, students who are new to Nia are concerned about dancing in bare feet. Nia is designed to be done barefoot, but listen to your feet - they might not be ready for it now. The Three Body Weights - Head, Chest And Pelvis In Nia, the three main body weights are the head, chest and pelvis. By generating your movements from the center of the body, you will begin to move in a way that will leave your spine lengthened and mobile. Your abdominal muscles will continuously be activated as will the muscles of your entire trunk. Sinking, Shifting & Rising Vs Jumping Through the shifting of body weight an integral cardiovascular workout that is limitless in its degrees of intensity is safely achieved without jogging or jumping. Stances To Express Power And Grounding When using stances you stabilize and isolate the lower portion of your body keeping your heart rate elevated by using emotion in the core of your body, your arms and hands and by changing movement dynamics. Systemic Motion As A Way To Express Your Whole Body In Nia In Nia, a systemic approach is used, applying functional, natural movements so the whole body becomes involved, stimulating and developing balance and sensory awareness. Moving Through Three Planes And Three Levels To Honour Our Bodies Moving through three planes improves coordination, balances intrinsic and extrinsic muscle groups, increases range of motion, coordinates mental and physical alertness, develops kinesthetic awareness, and blends the body and mind. Three levels of every movement provide choice, promote mind/body interest, create texture, and add variety to every single movement. This allows everyone to get as much or as little as they want from each class. Movement Qualities Focus on various movement qualities such as hard and soft, slow and fast, big and small, linear and circular, and you will change the feeling and expression of a motion, helping you tap into many new expressive parts of your personality as well as your physical body. Lia Kidoguchi - http://spot.pcc.edu/~lkidoguc 503.977-4210 [email protected]
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5.1. Replica Placement: The First Baby Steps: The placement of replicas is critical to HDFS reliability and performance. Optimizing replica placement distinguishes HDFS from most other distributed file systems. This is a feature that needs lots of tuning and experience. The purpose of a rack-aware replica placement policy is to improve data reliability, availability, and network bandwidth utilization. The current implementation for the replica placement policy is a first effort in this direction. The short-term goals of implementing this policy are to validate it on production systems, learn more about its behavior, and build a foundation to test and research more sophisticated policies. Large HDFS instances run on a cluster of computers that commonly spread across many racks. Communication between two nodes in different racks has to go through switches. In most cases, network bandwidth between machines in the same rack is greater than network bandwidth between machines in different racks. The NameNode determines the rack id each DataNode belongs to via the process outlined in Rack Awareness: A simple but non-optimal policy is to place replicas on unique racks. This prevents losing data when an entire rack fails and allows use of bandwidth from multiple racks when reading data. This policy evenly distributes replicas in the cluster which makes it easy to balance load on component failure. However, this policy increases the cost of writes because a write needs to transfer blocks to multiple racks. For the common case, when the replication factor is three, HDFS’s placement policy is to put one replica on one node in the local rack, another on a different node in the local rack, and the last on a different node in a different rack. This policy cuts the inter-rack write traffic which generally improves write performance. The chance of rack failure is far less than that of node failure; this policy does not impact data reliability and availability guarantees. However, it does reduce the aggregate network bandwidth used when reading data since a block is placed in only two unique racks rather than three. With this policy, the replicas of a file do not evenly distribute across the racks. One third of replicas are on one node, two thirds of replicas are on one rack, and the other third are evenly distributed across the remaining racks. This policy improves write performance without compromising data reliability or read performance. The current, default replica placement policy described here is a work in progress. 5.2. Replica Selection: To minimize global bandwidth consumption and read latency, HDFS tries to satisfy a read request from a replica that is closest to the reader. If there exists a replica on the same rack as the reader node, then that replica is preferred to satisfy the read request. If angg/ HDFS cluster spans multiple data centers, then a replica that is resident in the local data center is preferred over any remote replica. 5.3. Safemode: On startup, the NameNode enters a special state called Safemode. Replication of data blocks does not occur when the NameNode is in the Safemode state. The NameNode receives Heartbeat and Blockreport messages from the DataNodes. A Blockreport contains the list of data blocks that a DataNode is hosting. Each block has a specified minimum number of replicas. A block is considered safely replicated when the minimum number of replicas of that data block has checked in with the NameNode. After a configurable percentage of safely replicated data blocks checks in with the NameNode (plus an additional 30 seconds), the NameNode exits the Safemode state. It then determines the list of data blocks (if any) that still have fewer than the specified # of replicas. NameNode then replicates blocks to other DataNodes. Distributed Databases Hadoop Computing Model Notion of trans: unit of work ACID props, CC Notion of jobL unit work No CC Data Model Struct data w known schema Read/Write mode Any data any format ReadOnly mode Cost Model - Expensive servers Cheap commodity mach Fault Tolerance - Failures are rare Recovery mechanisms Failure common ~1000s Simple efficient fault tol KeyCharacteristi Effic, optimizatns, fine-tuning Scalability, flex, fault tol Bigger Picture: Hadoop vs. Other Systems Cloud Computing Compute model where any compute infrastructure can run on cloud Hardware & Software provided as remote services Elastic: grows/shrinks based on user’s demand Example: Amazon EC2
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5.3. Safemode: On startup, the NameNode enters a special state called Safemode. Replication of data blocks does not occur when the NameNode is in the Safemode state. The NameNode receives Heartbeat and Blockreport messages from the DataNodes. A Blockreport contains the list of data blocks that a DataNode is hosting. Each block has a specified minimum number of replicas. A block is considered safely replicated when the minimum number of replicas of that data block has checked in with the NameNode. After a configurable percentage of safely replicated data blocks checks in with the NameNode (plus an additional 30 seconds), the NameNode exits the Safemode state. It then determines the list of data blocks (if any) that still have fewer than the specified number of replicas. The NameNode then replicates these blocks to other DataNodes. 5.1. Replica Placement: The First Baby Steps: The placement of replicas is critical to HDFS reliability and performance. Optimizing replica placement distinguishes HDFS from most other distributed file systems. This is a feature that needs lots of tuning and experience. The purpose of a rack-aware replica placement policy is to improve data reliability, availability, and network bandwidth utilization. The current implementation for the replica placement policy is a first effort in this direction. The short-term goals of implementing this policy are to validate it on production systems, learn more about its behavior, and build a foundation to test and research more sophisticated policies. Large HDFS instances run on a cluster of computers that commonly spread across many racks. Communication between two nodes in different racks has to go through switches. In most cases, network bandwidth between machines in the same rack is greater than network bandwidth between machines in different racks. The NameNode determines the rack id each DataNode belongs to via the process outlined in Rack Awareness: A simple but non-optimal policy is to place replicas on unique racks. This prevents losing data when an entire rack fails and allows use of bandwidth from multiple racks when reading data. This policy evenly distributes replicas in the cluster which makes it easy to balance load on component failure. However, this policy increases the cost of writes because a write needs to transfer blocks to multiple racks. For the common case, when the replication factor is three, HDFS’s placement policy is to put one replica on one node in the local rack, another on a different node in the local rack, and the last on a different node in a different rack. This policy cuts the inter-rack write traffic which generally improves write performance. The chance of rack failure is far less than that of node failure; this policy does not impact data reliability and availability guarantees. However, it does reduce the aggregate network bandwidth used when reading data since a block is placed in only two unique racks rather than three. With this policy, the replicas of a file do not evenly distribute across the racks. One third of replicas are on one node, two thirds of replicas are on one rack, and the other third are evenly distributed across the remaining racks. This policy improves write performance without compromising data reliability or read performance. The current, default replica placement policy described here is a work in progress. 5.2. Replica Selection: To minimize global bandwidth consumption and read latency, HDFS tries to satisfy a read request from a replica that is closest to the reader. If there exists a replica on the same rack as the reader node, then that replica is preferred to satisfy the read request. If angg/ HDFS cluster spans multiple data centers, then a replica that is resident in the local data center is preferred over any remote replica.
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Joint Factory (Fixed) Fixed Revolute Joint Factory 1.      CreateFixedRevoluteJoint(PhysicsSimulator physicsSimulator, Body body, Vector2 anchor) 2.      CreateFixedRevoluteJoint(Body body, Vector2 anchor) Fixed Angle Joint Factory 1.      CreateFixedAngleJoint(PhysicsSimulator physicsSimulator, Body body) 2.      CreateFixedAngleJoint(Body body) Fixed Angle Limit Joint Factory 1.      CreateFixedAngleLimitJoint (PhysicsSimulator physicsSimulator, Body body, float min, float max) 2.      CreateFixedAngleLimitJoint (Body body, float min, float max)
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• • • • • • r = is the orbital position vector of the orbiting body relative to the central body, v = is the orbital velocity vector of the orbiting body relative to the central body, p = is the linear momentum of the orbiting body relative to the central body, m = is the mass of the orbiting body, and h = is the relative angular momentum of the orbiting body with respect to the central body. Under standard assumptions for an orbiting body in a trajectory around central body at any given time the vector is perpendicular to the osculating orbital plane defined by orbital position and velocity vectors.
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VLSI Floorplan: Algorithm Outline The common sequential approach for this problem is a tree-based, depth-first technique called branchand-bound, in which subtrees are pruned whenever it becomes clear that they become too costly. Component Component A A Placement Placement Chip Size: 25 Component Component B B Placement: Placement: Six Six Possibilities Possibilities Chip Size: 54 Chip Size: 55 Chip Size: 64 Chip Size: 85 Chip Size: 65 Chip Size: 84 Component Component C C Placement Placement (B1 (B1 Version): Version): Twelve Twelve Possibilities Possibilities Chip Size: 114 Chip Size: 144 Chip Size: 200 CS 340 Chip Size: 174 Chip Size: 143 Chip Size: 140 Chip Size: 112 Chip Size: 130 Chip Size: 220 Chip Size: 150 Chip Size: 234 Chip Size: 102 Page 4
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Alternatives •California leading the charge against placement testing* •Using GPA/GED** ▫Holistic approach ▫“We do not believe that the placement score alone should be the only factor used to decide a student’s placement into college-level classes”*** •Diagnostic testing ▫Standard course placement, with support services ▫ *Frey, Susan. “Report questions efficacy and fairness of college placement tests” Ed Source. August 2012. ▫ **Fain, Paul. “One-Stop Shop” Inside Higher Ed. June 2012. ▫ ***Abdul-Alim, Jamaal. “Study on College Placement Exams Energizes Debate about Their Effectiveness” Diverse: Issues in Higher Education. August 2012.
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 Newton’s Three Laws of Motion Law of Inertia is basically a statement of conservation of linear momentum The velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted on by an outside force; A body at rest tends to remain at rest, a body in motion tends to remain in motion, unless acted on by an outside force;  Force Law defines the force on a body in terms of its effect in accelerating the body The acceleration imparted to a body is proportional to and in the direction of the force applied, and inversely proportional to the mass of the body;  Law of Action and Reaction is basically the conservation of total linear momentum for a system of particles: For every force acting on a body, there is an equal and opposite force exerted by the body; or = constant September 13, 2018
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