Abstracting Communications • Fair-loss-links • If a correct process infinitely ofen sends a message m to a correct process q, then q delivers m an infinite number of times • If a correct process p sends a message m a finite number of times to process q, then m cannot be delivered an infinite number of times by q • No creation (related to authentication, ignored here) • Stubborn links • If a correct process p sends a message m once to a correct process q, then q delivers m an infinite number of times • Perfect links • If a correct process p sends a message m to a correct process q, then q eventually delivers m • No message is delivered by a process more than once Map to at least once, at most once, and exactly once?

Comma-Separated Values (CSV) File ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ question ID question title answered student count top student count (top 27%) middle student count (middle 46%) bottom student count (bottom 27%) quiz question count (total number of questions on test) correct student count (number of students answering correctly) wrong student count (number of students answering incorrectly) correct student ratio (ratio of students answering correctly) wrong student ratio (ratio of students answering incorrectly) correct top student count (students in the top 27% answering correctly) correct middle student count (students in the middle 46% answering correctly) correct bottom student count (students in the bottom 27% answering correctly) variance (of scores on this item) standard deviation (of scores on this item) difficulty index Alpha index (for entire test) point-biserial for the correct answer point-biserial for the first incorrect answer or distractor (followed by the second, etc.)

Drug related emergencies Our goal is to give the correct drug in the correct dose, via the correct route to the correct patient at the correct time for the correct reason. It is very important you know about the drugs that you have in the office or prescribe to the patient.

Selection Sort Selection sort finds the smallest number in the list and places it first. It then finds the smallest number remaining and places it second, and so on until the list contains only a single number. swap Select 1 (the smallest) and swap it with 2 (the first) in the list 2 9 5 4 8 1 6 8 2 6 The number 1 is now in the correct position and thus no longer needs to be considered. swap Select 2 (the smallest) and swap it with 9 (the first) in the remaining list 1 Select 4 (the smallest) and swap it with 5 (the first) in the remaining list 1 2 5 4 8 9 6 The number 2 is now in the correct position and thus no longer needs to be considered. 5 is the smallest and in the right position. No swap is necessary 1 2 4 5 8 9 6 The number 6 is now in the correct position and thus no longer needs to be considered. Select 6 (the smallest) and swap it with 8 (the first) in the remaining list 1 6 The number 5 is now in the correct position and thus no longer needs to be considered. Select 8 (the smallest) and swap it with 9 (the first) in the remaining list 1 2 4 5 6 9 8 The number 6 is now in the correct position and thus no longer needs to be considered. Since there is only one element remaining in the list, sort is completed 1 2 4 5 6 8 9 The number 8 is now in the correct position and thus no longer needs to be considered. 9 5 4 swap swap 2 4 5 8 9 swap

Dependency Aspects in D&C The “Design-for-all-cases and Select” Strategy Root problem A 00 01 10 Subprob. A1 Subprob. A2 I/p00 Subprob. A2 Subprob. A2 I/p01 I/p10 4-to-1 Mux • Strategy 2: For a k-bit i/p from A1 to A2, design 2**k copies of A2 each with a different hardwired k-bit i/p to replace the one from A1. • Select the correct o/p from all the copies of A2 via a (2**k)-to-1 Mux that is selected by the k-bit o/p from A1 when it becomes available • E.g., carry-select adder • t(A) = max(t(A1), t(A2)) + t(Mux) + t(stichup) = t(A1) + t(Mux) + t(stitch-up) if A1 and A2 are the same problems Select i/p I/p11 11 Subprob. A2 • Other variations---“Predict Strategy”: Have a single copy of A2 but choose a highly likely value of the k-bit i/p and perform A1, A2 concurrently. If after k-bit i/p from A1 is available and selection is incorrect, re-do A2 w/ correct available value. • t(A) = p(correct-choice)*max(t(A1), t(A2)) +[(1-p(correct-choice)]*t(A2) + t(Mux) + t(stich-up), where p(correct-choice) is probability that our choice of the k-bit i/p for A2 is correct • Need a completion signal to indicate when the final o/p is available for A; assuming worstcase time (when the choice is incorrect) is meaningless is such designs

dist[v] min{dist[v], dist[u ] w(u , v)} dist[v] will be right if u is along the shortest path to v and dist[u] is correct How many times do we have to do this for vertex pi to have the correct shortest path from s? i times s p1 correct correct p2 p3 correct correct pk v

dist[v] min{dist[v], dist[u ] w(u , v)} dist[v] will be right if u is along the shortest path to v and dist[u] is correct How many times do we have to do this for vertex pi to have the correct shortest path from s? i times s p1 correct correct p2 p3 correct correct pk … v

HOLISTIC SCORING GUIDE FOR STUDENTS IN A BALLET PROGRAM A: Active learner – Enthusiastic – Very energetic – Fully engaged in every class – Able to accept corrections – Able to make and synthesize corrections – Able to maintain corrections – Able to selfassess – Shows continuous improvement in major problem areas – Connects movement sequences well – Demonstrates strong dynamic phrasing – Continuously demonstrates correct epaulment – Demonstrates advanced understanding and applies correct alignment, fully extended classical line, full use of rotation, and use of classical terminology B: Active learner – Enthusiastic – Energetic – Engaged in every class – Able to accept corrections – Able to make and synthesize corrections – Able to maintain most corrections – Able to self-assess – Shows improvement in major problem areas – Connects movement sequences relatively well – Demonstrates adequate dynamic phrasing – Generally demonstrates correct epaulment – Demonstrates understanding and generally applies correct alignment, classical line, and use of classical terminology C: Active learner but not fully engaged in class –Able to accept most corrections – Not quite able to make and synthesize corrections – Not yet able to maintain most corrections – Unable to self-assess – Shows improvement in major problem areas – Connects some movement sequences – Demonstrates limited dynamic phrasing – Working toward correct epaulment – Working on understanding and applying correct alignment, classical line, and use of classical terminology

Your Homework Checklist On the first page of each homework section: Put your Name & Assignment in the right top corner of first page For each problem: Write problem number and the original problem (word problems: summarize briefly) Write down intermediate work steps – most problems will have them Write down your answer clearly Suggested - Every 5 problems: Check these 5 answers in the back of the textbook Correct any wrong answers (if you can ) by fixing the work steps Circle only the correct answers. Mark any wrong or missing answers with a big X – do not circle or count as correct! Use both front and back pages but leave a little space between problems After working all the problems that you can, determine the SCORE: Count the number of correct problems Get the number of assigned problems from the assignment line {##} Your SCORE is the ratio of correct problems to the total assigned. Example: 27 31 Write the SCORE at the page top just left of your name If more than one page was used for this section, Staple them together top left When it’s time to Submit one of the 13 Homework Submissions: Staple (top left) the 3 to 5 sections together, in order Pass in to me for Grading (0 to 10 points) based on percentage of problems done correctly

Your Homework Checklist On the first page of each homework Section: Put your Name & Assignment in the right top corner of first page For each problem: Write problem number and the original problem (word problems: summarize briefly) Write down intermediate work steps – most problems will have them Write down your answer and circle it Suggested - Every 5 problems: Check these 5 answers in the back of the textbook Correct any wrong answers (if you can ) by fixing the work steps Circle only the correct answers. Mark any wrong or missing answers with a big X – do not circle or count as correct! Use both front and back pages but leave a little space between problems After working all the problems that you can, determine the SCORE: Count the number of correct problems Get the number of assigned problems from the assignment line {##} Your SCORE is the ratio of correct problems to the total assigned. Example: 27 31 Write the SCORE at the page top just left of your name If more than one page was used for this section, Staple them together top left When it’s time to Submit one of the 13 Homework Packages: Staple (top left) the 3 to 5 sections together, in order Pass in to me for Grading (0 to 10 points) based on percentage of problems done correctly

17. Are these answers correct? A. Is this answers correct? B. Are these answers correct? C. Is this answer correct? D. Are these answer correct? E. Is this answer corrects?

What does SAS System do when we submit a program? When we submit a SAS program, SAS performs the following tasks: (1) Compile the program to check for syntax errors. (2) If there is no syntax errors, execute the program to read, process, manipulate the data. (3) Analyze the data and generate the resulting reports. At the step (1), results of compiling the program are displayed in the SAS Log window. The programmer checks the SAS Log to correct the program and resubmit it until no syntax error. At Step (2), read, process and manipulate the data. If the program logic is not correct, the results will not be correct. Some errors may be displayed in the SAS Log, but some errors may not be displayed. These errors are not due to syntax or due to data, but, due to the program logic is not correct to accomplish the purpose. may not be displayed as all. At Step (3), data are analyzed. Errors occur often due to wrong statistical analysis. This requires proper statistical knowledge to correct the errors.

dist[v] min{dist[v], dist[u ] w(u , v)} dist[v] will be right if u is along the shortest path to v and dist[u] is correct How many times do we have to do this for vertex pi to have the correct shortest path from s? i times s p1 p2 correct correct correct p3 pk v

dist[v] min{dist[v], dist[u ] w(u , v)} dist[v] will be right if u is along the shortest path to v and dist[u] is correct What is the longest (vetex-wise) the path from s to any node v can be? |V| - 1 edges/vertices s p1 correct correct p2 p3 correct correct pk … v

Assessment Method General Problem Solving (60 pts) 1.1 Form a Hypothesis: 20 pts 1.2 Suitable Test: 20 pts Decide to Test Experimental Design, Comparison, Etc. First Specific Test Second Specific Test 1.3 Conclusions based on evidence: 20 pts Stated and correct with correct explanation Stated and correct Stated and correct with incorrect explanation Implied and correct Stated and incorrect Just implied Implied and incorrect ?

Nursing Implications Insulin When insulin is ordered, ensure: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Correct route Correct type of insulin Timing of the dose Correct dosage Insulin order and prepared dosages are second-checked with another nurse ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Check blood glucose level before giving insulin Roll vials between hands them to mix suspensions – no shaking! Ensure correct storage of insulin vials ONLY insulin syringes, calibrated in units, to administer insulin Ensure correct timing of insulin dose with meals