Sample paper Horror Films as Vehicles for Change Our American society knows horror films as a way to scare ourselves for entertainment. Many horror films are also a reflection of real-life horrors. After all, aren’t you more afraid when you know that what is scary really happened? However, horror films based on real events are more than just scary; they can also make us more aware of horrific acts that are occurring in society, including acts of war and racially-motivated acts of violence that might otherwise go unnoticed and unfelt. The 1974 film The Texas Chainsaw Massacre was one of the most horrific movies of all time. The film was inspired by serial killer Ed Gein who was known as necrophiliac, a cannibal and a murder. Police who arrested Gein reported that the Gein Farm smelled like rotting and decaying meat. But as Erik McClanahan writes, the film was also political: “America was in a dark place during the film’s initial release, with racial tensions, a struggling economy, Vietnam and Watergate, and the apparent passing of the counter-culture, to name but a few issues.” Ironically, many viewers would have been more aware of the horrors depicted in The Texas Chainsaw Massacre than the actual horrors of the Vietnam War given that the news media was reluctant to show actual war footage. Tobe Hooper was using this film in order to critique violence, not glorify it. In fact, McClanahan reports that Hooper stopped eating meat while making the film. Pink = point; yellow = illustration; green = explanation
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Ventilator circuits should not be changed routinely for infection control purposes. The maximum duration of time that circuits can be used safely is unknown. Evidence is lacking related to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and issues of heated versus unheated circuits, type of heated humidifier, method for filling the humidifier, and technique for clearing condensate from the ventilator circuit. Although the available evidence suggests a lower VAP rate with passive humidification than with active humidification, other issues related to the use of passive humidifiers (resistance, dead space volume, airway occlusion risk) preclude a recommendation for the general use of passive humidifiers. Passive humidifiers do not need to be changed daily for reasons of infection control or technical performance. They can be safely used for at least 48 hours, and with some patient populations some devices may be able to be used for periods of up to 1 week. The use of closed suction catheters should be considered part of a VAP prevention strategy, and they do not need to be changed daily for infection control purposes. The maximum duration of time that closed suction catheters can be used safely is unknown. Clinicians caring for mechanically ventilated patients should be aware of risk factors for VAP (eg, nebulizer therapy, manual ventilation, and patient transport). [Respir Care 2003;48(9):869–879. © 2003 Daedalus Enterprises]
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Review •Do you understand: – Ladder setup? – How to climb and descend ladders safely? – Working safely on ladders? – Ladder maintenance and storage? – Transporting ladders safely?
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A GraphADT (continued) /** * Returns a breadth first iterator starting with the given vertex. * * @param startVertex the starting vertex * @return a breadth first iterator beginning at the given * vertex */ public Iterator iteratorBFS(T startVertex); /** * Returns a depth first iterator starting with the given vertex. * * @param startVertex the starting vertex * @return a depth first iterator starting at the given vertex */ public Iterator iteratorDFS(T startVertex); 1-50 © 2010 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 1-50
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File methods There are several Python methods for reading from and writing to files • • • • read(n) returns n characters, or the entire file if parameter n is omitted readline() returns one line (including the endline character) readlines() returns the entire file as a list of strings (one line = one string) write() returns the number of characters written Usage infile.read(n) infile.read() infile.readline() Description Read n characters starting from cursor; if fewer than n characters remain, read until the end of file Read starting from cursor up to the end of the file outfile.write(s) Read starting from cursor up to and including the endline character Read starting from cursor up to the end of the file and return a list of lines Write string s to outfile starting from cursor infile.close(n) Close infile infile.readlines()
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Introduction to Computing Using Python File methods There are several Python methods for reading from and writing to files • • • • read() returns the entire file as a string readline() returns one line (up to the end-of-line character) as a string readlines() returns the entire file as a list of strings (one line = one string) write() returns the number of characters written Usage Description infile.read(n) Read n characters starting from cursor; if fewer than n characters remain, read until the end of file infile.read() Read starting from cursor up to the end of the file infile.readline() Read starting from cursor up to, and including, the end of line character infile.readlines() Read starting from cursor up to the end of the file and return a list of lines outfile.write(s) Write string s to file outfile starting from cursor infile.close(n) Close file infile
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Starting Points Initial values for variables Default starting point is zero or the variable lower bound. Starting point in right neighborhood is likely to return a desirable solution. Initial values close to optimal one reduces work required to find the optimal solution. Poor initial values can lead to numerical problems. Starting points can help avoid such.
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45 Motor starting • Motor starting analysis looks at the impacts of starting a motor or a series of motors (usually quite large motors) on the power grid – Examples are new load or black start plans • While not all transient stability motor load models allow the motor to start, some do • When energized, the initial condition for the motor is slip of 1.0 • Motor starting can generate very small time constants
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Connection to real world  Calculus-Based Algebra-Based High School (Algebra-Based) Please tell me a story where an object or a person has a positive position and velocity, but negative acceleration. – If you are moving in a positive direction but slow down so you don’t you get hit by a truck you will have negative acceleration. – A runner is running away from the starting line (the origin), steps into a pothole, stumbles for a bit, and then continues running. His velocity would have decreased, but would stay positive, while acceleration would be negative. Yes! This is a good story. Did Scott (who’s on the cross-country team) help dream it up? I’m glad you liked it, It was Scott. – A story about a sprinter running away from a starting line has a positive position and velocity but a negative acceleration. Oops sorry he’s drunk and turned around to start running towards the starting line. check this- you sure? If the sprinter is moving away from the starting line at an increasing rate (speed is getting faster) then the acceleration would be positive. If you’d like to edit your story you’re welcome to.
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BI-GRAM WITTEN-BELL DISCOUNTING Add probability mass to un-encountered bi-grams; discount the rest  Consider the bi-gram w w n n-1     Compute probability of a new bi-gram (bin-1) starting with wn-1     O(wn-1) = number of uniquely observed bi-grams starting with wn-1 N(wn-1) = count of bi-grams starting with w n-1 U(wn-1) = number of un-observed bi-grams starting with w n-1 Answer: P( any newly encountered bi-gram ) = N(wn-1)/(N(wn-1) +O(wn-1)) Note: We observed O(wn-1) bi-grams in N(wn-1)+O(wn-1) events Note: An event is either a bi-gram or a first time encounter Divide this probability among all unseen bi-grams (new(wn-1)) Adjusted count = N(wn-1) * 1/U(wn-1) * O(wn-1)/(N(wn)+O(wn-1)) O =1 observed bi-gram, U = bi-gram never seen, V = corpus vocabulary bi
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Compound (Shortcut) Operators Operator += Adding the operand to the starting value of the variable. -= Subtracting the operand from the starting value of the variable. *= Multiplying the operand by the starting value of the variable. /= Dividing the operand by the starting value of the variable. %=Remainder after dividing the right operand by the value in the variable.
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Understanding the Equity Summary Score Methodology 3 Score sentiment can be viewed on the symbol ‐ specific Analyst Opinions History and Performance pages. 1. Equity Summary Scorecard Summary: A Total Return by Sentiment chart shows how a theoretical portfolio of stocks in each of the five sentiments performed within the selected time period. For example, the bright green bar represents the performance of all the Very Bullish stocks. Provided for comparison is the performance of First Call Consensus Recommendation of Strong Buy, the average of all stocks with an Equity Summary Score, and the S&P 500 Total Return Index. 2. Performance by Sector and Market Cap Fidelity customers have access to more in‐depth analysis of the Equity Summary Score universe and performance. The Total Return by Sector chart provides the historical performance of a theoretical portfolio of Very Bullish stocks in each sector over the time period selected. For comparison, the average performance of all stocks with an Equity Summary Score during the time period by sector is also provided. The Total Return by Market Cap shows the historical performance by market capitalization for stocks with an Equity Summary Score of Very Bullish as compared to typical market benchmarks as well the average for the largest 500 stocks, the next smaller 400 stocks, and the next 600 smaller stocks by market capitalization. The last table is the Equity Summary Score universe distribution for the reporting month by market capitalization and score. Understanding the Equity Summary Score Methodology Provided By 4 Important Information on Monthly Performance Calculations by StarMine  The set of covered stocks and ratings are established as of the second to last trading day of a given month. For a stock to be included in the scorecard calculations, it must have an Equity Summary Score as of the second to the last trading day of the month. The positions are assumed to be entered into on the last trading day of the month, and, if necessary, exited on the last trading day of the next month.  The Scorecard calculations use the closing price as of the last trading day of the month. The Scorecard calculations assume StarMine exits old positions and enters new ones at the same time at closing prices on the last trading day of a given month. The calculations assume 100% investment at all times.  The 1‐Year total return by Market Cap table breakpoints for the largest 500 stocks (large cap), the next 400 (mid cap), and the next 600 (small cap), are also established as of the end of trading on the second to the last trading day of a given month.  The calculation of performance assumes an equal dollar weighted portfolio of stocks ie theoretical investment allocated to each stock is the same  Performance in a given month for a given stock is calculated as [starting price (starting price meaning closing price as of the last day of trading of the prior month) less the ending price, divided by the starting price.] Prices incorporate any necessary adjustments for dividends and corporate actions (e.g. splits or spinoffs).  The performance of a given tier of rated stocks is calculated by adding up the performance of all stocks within that given tier, then dividing by the total number of stocks in a given tier.  The process for the next month begins again by looking at Equity Summary Scores as of the second‐to‐last trading day of the new month, placing stocks into their given tiers, and starting the process all over again.  It is important to note that the “theoretical” portfolio rebalancing process that StarMine performs between the end of one month and the beginning of the next month is, for the purposes of the scorecard, a cost‐free process. This means that no commissions or other transaction costs (e.g. bid/ask spreads) are included in the calculations.  If a customer attempted to track portfolios of stocks similar to those included in the scorecard, their returns would likely differ due to transaction costs as well as different purchase and sale prices received when buying or selling stocks.
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What is a Cycle   As stated earlier, a compression wave moves the air, from a certain static point, forward, then backwards, then returns to starting point. Each full movement - from starting point, to fully forwards, then backwards (passing the starting point) fully backwards, and then back to the starting point, is called a cycle. ◦ You might ask yourself why the wave moves forwards and backwards … remember “for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.” ◦ If there were a vacuum (no air), there would be no medium to “react” the disturbance, and hence no sound.
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